Supervisory Working Alliance Inventory- Trainee Version (SWAI – T)
The Supervisory Working Alliance Inventory- Trainee Version is a 19-item instrument that measures the strength of the supervisory working alliance in counselor supervision from the perspective of the supervisee.

Evidence-Based Assessment Rating Profile


Sample Items 


Relevant Literature:

  1. Bilodeau, C., Savard, R., & Lecomte, C. (2010). Examining Supervisor and Supervisee Agreement on Alliance: Is Shame a Factor? Canadian Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy / Revue Canadienne de Counseling et de Psychothérapie, 44(3).
  2. Bilodeau, C., Savard, R., & Lecomte, C. (2012). Trainee Shame-Proneness and the Supervisory Process. The Journal for Counselor Preparation and Supervision, 4(1). 
  3. Chen, E. C., & Bernstein, B. L. (2000). Relations of complementarity and supervisory issues to supervisory working alliance: A comparative analysis of two cases. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 47(4), 485–497. doi:10.1037/0022-0167.47.4.485
  4. Efstation, J. (1990). Measuring the working alliance in counselor supervision. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 37(3), 322–329. doi:10.1037/0022-0167.37.3.322
  5. Gauntz, M. (2007, April 26). The Graham Model of bibliosupervision : a multiple-baseline analysis (Thesis).
  6. Gnilka, P. (2010). The Effects of Counselor Trainee Stress and Coping Resources on the Working Alliance and Supervisory Working Alliance. Counseling and Psychological Services Dissertations
  7. Gnilka, P. B., Chang, C. Y., & Dew, B. J. (2012). The Relationship Between Supervisee Stress, Coping Resources, the Working Alliance, and the Supervisory Working Alliance. Journal of Counseling & Development, 90(1), 63–70. doi:10.1111/j.1556-6676.2012.00009.x
  8. Gunn, J. E., & Carole, M. (2012). Trainee supervisor attachment: Explaining the alliance and disclosure in supervision. Training and Education in Professional Psychology, 6(4), 229–237. doi:10.1037/a0030805
  9. Herbert, J. T., & Trusty, J. (2006). Clinical Supervision Practices and Satisfaction Within the Public Vocational Rehabilitation Program. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 49(2), 66–80. doi:10.1177/00343552060490020801
  10. Humeidan, M. A. (2002). Counseling self-efficacy, supervisory working alliance, and social influence in supervision. Virtual Press
  11. Jerez, R. A. (1999). The effects of face-to-face supervisor-client contact on therapy outcome and the perceptions of the supervisor, counselor, and client. (Thesis). 
  12. Lorenz, D. C. (2011). Counseling self-efficacy in practicum students: Contributions of supervision. ProQuest, UMI Dissertation Publishing.
  13. McCarthy, A. K. (2013). Relationship Between Supervisory Working Alliance and Client Outcomes in State Vocational Rehabilitation Counseling. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 57(1), 23–30. doi:10.1177/0034355213484177
  14. Patton, M. J., & Kivlighan Jr., D. M. (1997). Relevance of the supervisory alliance to the counseling alliance and to treatment adherence in counselor training. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 44(1), 108–115. doi:10.1037/0022-0167.44.1.108
  15. Reese, R. J., Aldarondo, F., Anderson, C. R., Lee, S.-J., Miller, T. W., & Burton, D. (2009). Telehealth in clinical supervision: a comparison of supervision formats. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, 15(7), 356–361. doi:10.1258/jtt.2009.090401
  16. Reese, R. J., Usher, E. L., Bowman, D. C., Norsworthy, L. A., Halstead, J. L., Rowlands, S. R., & Chisholm, R. R. (2009). Using client feedback in psychotherapy training: An analysis of its influence on supervision and counselor self-efficacy. Training and Education in Professional Psychology, 3(3), 157–168. doi:10.1037/a0015673
  17. Schultz, J. C., Ososkie, J. N., Fried, J. H., Nelson, R. E., & Bardos, A. N. (2002). Clinical Supervision in Public Rehabilitation Counseling Settings. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 45(4), 213–222. doi:10.1177/00343552020450040401
  18. Sterner, W. (2007). The Influence of the Supervisory Working Alliance on Work Satisfaction and Work-Related Stress for Counselors in Professional Settings. Penn State University. 
  19. Sterner, W. (2009). Influence of the Supervisory Working Alliance on Supervisee Work Satisfaction and Work-Related Stress. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 31(3), 249–263.
  20. Wester, S. R., Vogel, D. L., & Archer, J. (2004). Male Restricted Emotionality and Counseling Supervision. Journal of Counseling & Development, 82(1), 91–98. doi:10.1002/j.1556-6678.2004.tb00289.x